Startup, booting, shutdown, and init level matrix sheet for Unix/Linux distros

 
Solaris
Red Hat
Ubuntu/Debian
HP
AIX
startup

eeprom

setenv boot-device

grub (GUI)
lilo (text based)
grub (GUI) setboot -p <primary path>
setboot -a <alternate path>

# autoboot sequnce
setboot -b [on|off]
bootlist -m normal hdisk0 hdisk1
shutdown

shutdown -i5 -g0 -y (power down)
shutdown -i6 -g0 -y (reboot)
shutdown -i0 -g0 -y (OK prompt)

reboot -- -r (reboot/reconfigure)

touch /reconfigure

shutdown -h (halt)
shutdown -r (reboot)
shutdown -f (fast reboot no fsck)
shutdown -F (force fsck)

shutdown -h (halt)
shutdown -r (reboot)
shutdown -P (power off)

touch /forcefsck

# edit /etc/default/rcS change below so
# you dont have to hang around
FSCKFIX=yes

shutdown -h now (halt)
shutdown -r now(reboot)
shutdown -F (fast shutdown)
shutdown -Fr (fast shutdown and reboot)
Change run level halt
init
poweroff
reboot
shutdown
telinit
uadmin
halt
init
poweroff
reboot
shutdown
telinit
halt
init
poweroff
reboot
shutdown
telinit
init
reboot
shutdown
init
shutdown
reboot
telinit
halt
init status
0
1
2
3
4
5
6


0 - shutdown
1 - single user
2 - n/a
3 - Multi-user
4 - n/a
5 - power off
6 - reboot

 

# change default
vi /etc/inittab


0 - halt
1 - single user
2 - multiuser (no networking)
3 - multiuser (networking)
4 - unused
5 - GUI
6 - reboot

 

# change default
vi /etc/inittab


0 - halt
1 - single user
2 - multiuser (default)
3 - same as 2
4 - same as 2
5 - same as 2
6 - reboot



# change default - change all the telinit
vi /etc/event.d/rc-default


0 - halt
1 - single users
2 - multiuser (networking)
3 - multiuser (networking, NFS, and CDE GUI) (default)
4 - multiuser (netwrking, NFS, and VUE GUI)
5 - n/a
6 - n/a

 

# change default - change the initdefault line
vi /etc/inittab


0 - reserved
1 - reserved
2 - multiuser mode with NFS
3 - user defined
4 - user defined
5 - user defined
6 - user defined
7-9 - user defined

# change default - change the initdefault line
vi /etc/inittab

Startup options

boot <option>

# Options
-s single user
-a interactive
-x no device drivers (used in clustering)
-r reconfigure devices
-m milestone

single  - use grub to edit kernel line
emergency - use grub to edit kernel line
linux rescue - use at the boot prompt

single: runlevel1, local fs mounted, no network
emergency: root fs read-only, no init files run
rescue: use cd-rom/network, root mounted as /mnt/sysimage

single  - use grub to edit kernel line
emergency - use grub to edit kernel line
linux rescue - use at the boot prompt

single: runlevel1, local fs mounted, no network
emergency: root fs read-only, no init files run
rescue: use cd-rom/network, root mounted as /mnt/sysimage

interact with IPL? Y

# single user
ISL> hpux -is

# Logical volume maintanence mode
ISL> hpux -lm

# No quroum check
ISL> hpux -lq

Based on 9114-275 workstation

1. switch off the machine

2. power on and enter the SMS menu

Note: to enter the SMS menu press numeric 1 after the word keyboard but before the word speaker

startup scripts /etc/init.d

/etc/rc0.d - /etc/rc6.d
/etc/init.d

/etc/rc0.d - /etc/rc6.d
/etc/init.d

/etc/rc0.d - /etc/rc6.d
/sbin/init.d
/etc/rc.config.d (startup config files)

/sbin/rc0.d - /sbin/rc6.d

/etc/rc.d
/etc/rc.d/init.d

/etc/rc.d/rc2.d - rc9.d

/etc/rc.* (config files for auto-starting)

also uses the System Resource Controller

boot prompt commands

boot
printenv
setenv
banner
devalias
show-devs
show-pci-devs-all
probe-scsi-all
probe-fcal-all
probe-pci
watch-net-all
reset-all

F10 or F12 F10 or F12 interact with IPL? Y

Based on a 9114-275 workstation

1. switch off the machine

2. power on and enter the SMS menu

Note: to enter the SMS menu press numeric 1 after the word keyboard but before the word speaker

Boot process

Phases:

  • Boot PROM: displays system information, run POST, load bootblk, locate ufsboot
  • Boot Programs: bootblk loads and executes the ufsboot
  • Kernel Initialization: ufsboot loads and executes the core kernel, initializes core kernel data structures, loads other kernel modules based on the /etc/system file, starts /sbin/init program
  • init: starts other processes based on the /etc/inittab file

Boot sequence

  1. BIOS
  2. POST
  3. Master Boot Record (MBR) - point to the bootloader GRUB or LILO
  4. GRUB (stage 1) - point to GRUB stage 1_5
  5. GRUB (stage 1_5) - deals with specific filesystem types look at /boot/grub/*1_5 files
  6. GRUB (stage 2) – reads /etc/grub.conf and displays the grub menu, it specifies the kernel and the initrd files
  7. KERNEL - control given to the kernel
  8. INIT - reads /etc/inittab and runs /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit script

Boot sequence

  1. BIOS
  2. POST
  3. Master Boot Record (MBR) - point to the bootloader GRUB or LILO
  4. GRUB (stage 1) - point to GRUB stage 1_5
  5. GRUB (stage 1_5) - deals with specific filesystem types look at /boot/grub/*1_5 files
  6. GRUB (stage 2) – reads /boot/grub/menu.lst and displays the grub menu, it specifies the kernel and the initrd files
  7. KERNEL - control given to the kernel
  8. INIT - runs the /etc/event.d/rc-default script

Phases:

  1. PDC - processor-dependent code; executes and performs self-tests
  2. ISL - initial system loader; loads the secondary system loader hpux
  3. HPUX - is the secondary system loader and loads the kernel /stand/vmunix, then hands over to the kernel
  4. KERNEL - swapper processes are started by the kernel then starts the init process
  5. INIT - reads /etc/inittab

Phases:

  • Read Only Storage (ROS): check the system board, perform POST, locate and load boot image, begin system initialization and execute phase 1 of the /etc/rc.boot script
  • Base Device Configuration: start configuration manager to configue base devices
  • System Boot: start init process phase 2, switch to hard-disk root filesystem, start other processes defined by /etc/inittab and execute phase 3 of the /etc/rc.boot script
Boot Environments (BE) bootadm list-archive
bootadm update-archive
bootadm list-menu
bootadm set-menu <option>

beadm create
beadm rename
beadm activate
beadm list
beadm destroy
       
determine the run level who -r runlevel
who -r
runlevel
who -r
who -r who -r
obtain default run level cat /etc/inittab cat /etc/inittab /etc/event.d/rc-default /etc/inittab /etc/inittab
list locale locale -a locale -a locale -a locale -a locale -a
start xwindows n/a startx (shorthand of below)
initx (lots of parms)
  n/a n/a
initialize system sys-unconfig     set_parms [initial|hostname|ip_address|timezone]

Note: set_parms is in /sbin
install_assist
Timezone /etc/TIMEZONE
/etc/default/init
/etc/sysconfig/clock
/usr/share/zoneinfo/zone.tab
/etc/timezone
/usr/share/zoneinfo/zone.tab
/etc/TIMEZONE /etc/environment
/etc/profile