Here are some experience about file system corruption, may not be enough, welcome to join and make comments:
Most often, a file system is corrupted because the system experienced a panic or did not shut down cleanly. This can be caused by system software failure, hardware failure, or human error (for example, pulling the plug). Another possible source of file system corruption is overlapping partitions.
There is no foolproof way to predict hardware failure. The best way to avoid hardware failures is to conscientiously follow recommended diagnostic and maintenance procedures.
Human error is probably the greatest single cause of file system corruption. To avoid problems, follow these rules closely:
Always shut down the system properly. Do not simply turn off power to the system. Use a standard system shutdown tool, such as the shutdown command.
Never remove a file system physically (pull out a hard disk) without first turning off power.
Never physically write-protect a mounted file system, unless it is mounted read-only.
Do not mount file systems on dual-hosted disks on two systems simultaneously.
The best way to insure against data loss is to make regular, careful backups.
In some cases, XFS file system corruption, even on the root file system, can be repaired with the command xfs_repair. For more information about xfs_repair, check the article how to repair a xfs file system