On RHEL/CentOS7, xfs is the default filesystem, for other systems, you can use xfs_repair to repair the filesystem problems, what about root filesystem(/) ?
Here are two ways:
Using ram root
Boot from your ram root device and run xfs_repair
xfs_repair dangeously with '-d' option
Repair dangerously. Allow xfs_repair to repair an XFS filesystem mounted read only. This is typically done on a root filesystem from single user mode, immediately followed by a reboot.
# xfs_repair -d /