On RHEL/CentOS7, xfs is the default filesystem, for other systems, you can use xfs_repair to repair the filesystem problems,  what about root filesystem(/) ?

Here are two ways:

Using ram root

Boot from your ram root device and run xfs_repair

xfs_repair dangeously with '-d' option

Repair dangerously. Allow xfs_repair to repair an XFS  filesystem  mounted  read  only.  This  is  typically  done  on a root filesystem from single user mode,  immediately followed by a reboot.

# xfs_repair -d /